(Foto tratta da nationalgeografiph.it)
sabato 27 giugno 2015
Grecia/ La crisi vista da un greco che vive da anni in Sicilia: “Sull’Euro Tsipras lascerà decidere il popolo”
di Manos Kouvakis
tratto da "LA VOCE DI NEW YORK":
L'OPINIONE/ Manos Kouvakis, da decenni in Sicilia, dove gestisce un Centro di alta formazione in subacquea industriale, racconta il suo Paese. I legami e le similitudini tra greci e siciliani. Il ruolo della volontà popolare nel possibile no alla Troika. E le porte aperte a Russia e Cina
Manos Kouvakis è un greco che vive da tanti anni in Sicilia. Ma non ha mai perso il legame con la sua terra. Per lui, Grecia e Sicilia presentano tante similituduni: nei colori, nei sapori, nel modo di affrontare la vita. Dietro c'è una filosofia. Ma anche l'orgoglio di un greco che, oggi più di ieri, si sente rappresentato da Tsipras, un leader democratico diverso da chi l'ha preceduto che, a suo giudizio, interpreta le aspirazioni del popolo greco.
Nella trasmissione Prosopika della televisione nazionale greca Nerit del 5 aprile 2015, dal titolo La Grecia dell’Italia, la giornalista Elena Katritsi, nella sua intervista, ha cercato di riportare temi e opinioni dei greci che da anni vivono in Sicilia. Si parla dell’unicità della Sicilia e della sua similitudine con la Grecia, sia di tipo caratteriale ma anche di tipo politico-economico e della “vita che scorre nel suo quotidiano piena di sapori colori e musica”. Insomma, di una Sicilia legata alla Grecia da un filo invisibile.
Il rapporto tra Grecia e Sicilia si intreccia con le vicissitudini che l’attuale governo greco di Tsipras sta affrontando, dando un brusco cambio di rotta ad un ambiente consolidato dai governi passati che hanno portato il popolo ellenico a guardare con occhi diversi il passato. Sì, è vero che negli ultimi 40 anni della mia permanenza in Sicilia sono stato poco interessato all’andamento politico greco, ma è anche vero che l’elezione di Tsipras è stato un richiamo che ha attirato la mia attenzione sulle vicende del mio Paese.
Forse anche la conoscenza della lingua e i parenti rimasti in Grecia mi hanno coinvolto, ormai da mesi, in continue discussioni mai fatte prima sulle vicende politiche greche. Forse la sofferenza di un popolo che ha superato i confini dello stato greco e sta facendo da richiamo a tutti noi, cercando, come ha fatto sempre nei secoli passati, di alzare la testa e rompere ancora una volta le catene.
Tsipras (nella foto a destra con il Ministro dell'Economia greco, Varufakis)ha espresso la volontà della
maggioranza del popolo greco quando, nei giorni scorsi, ha dichiarato al Forum Economico Internazionale di San Pietroburgo: “Ci troviamo nel bel mezzo di una tempesta. Ma siamo gente di mare, siamo esperti della furia degli elementi e non temiamo di navigare su acque profonde, in nuovi mari, per raggiungere porti nuovi e più sicuri”. Mentre Yanis Varoufakis, ministro delle Finanze della Grecia nel Governo Tsipras parla dell’accordo che non si riesce a siglare fra le esigenze del popolo greco e i Paesi ‘duri’ dell’Unione Europea, non utilizzando la parola inglese agreement o agreed, ma l’equivalente parola greca: sinfonia, che suona come la melodia di un accordo che permetterebbe alle parti di portare avanti una politica comune, che metta in primo piano la crescita di un popolo. Sì, la crescita del popolo greco che, anche alla luce degli errori commessi dai governi precedenti, rifiuta di mantenere una Troika di sacrifici, sudore e sangue, a vantaggio degli interessi forti, interessi che nulla hanno a che fare con la solidarietà e la cooperazione, valori nel cui nome è stata costruita l’Eurozona.
Il governo greco è pronto a far saltare gli “accordi subiti” e navigare verso porti nuovi, ma nello stesso tempo lotta affinché si trovi la “sinfonia” all’interno dell’eurogruppo, avendo la consapevolezza che in questo momento manca ai suoi interlocutori, che si trovano dall’altra parte del tavolo: ovvero la consapevolezza che l’uscita della Grecia dall’Euro, per quanto disastrosa possa essere nell’immediato per il governo greco, non è per nulla paragonabile alle macerie che lascerebbe alle sue spalle in tutti i Paesi che resteranno all’interno dell’Eurozona. In ogni caso si apriranno scenari impensabili, che in questo momento si possono solamente ipotizzare, ma nulla sarà come prima.
E’ possibile questa soluzione dell’uscita della Grecia dall’Euro? Penso di sì, perché nessuno ha veramente capito dopo tanti secoli lo spirito del popolo greco, che è il vero motore che fa muovere Tsipras, greco al cento per cento, che con le lacrime agli occhi ha tenuto i suoi discorsi nel Parlamento ellenico in piazza Syntagma ad Atene. Ora, Alexis Tsipras vuole la delega dalla maggioranza del popolo greco per andare avanti in una decisione storica, quale essa sia, decisione che dovrà prendere nei prossimi giorni nei tavoli delle trattative europee. Anche per lanciare un segnale forte ai Paesi dell’Eurozona. Che dirà? Da greco, penso che dirà non ci sono più margini e tempo, che non saranno più accettate condizioni transitorie che non risolvono niente, ma prolungano solo le sofferenze di un popolo già molto provato. Insomma, chiederà ai propri cittadini di dargli un mandato preciso, su cosa fare. E cioè:
a) rimanere nell’Euro e accettare il piano della Troika;
b) uscire dall’Euro e accettare la Dracma con tutte le conseguenze (e opportunità?) del caso.
Da grande politico, vuole che questa decisione storica sia condivisa dal popolo, lui vuole solo farsi portavoce della sua volontà, facendo partecipare ogni singolo cittadino a questo avvenimento, dove qualsiasi soluzione che verrà scelta diventerà storia: una storia che sarà raccontata alle generazioni future. Vuole sentire il polso di un popolo che si sente umiliato da questo trattamento, che vuole stare in Europa, ma come cittadino europeo e non come popolo sottomesso alle banche, di un popolo che vuole stare in una Europa diversa, come era stata pensata quando è stata creata e non come quella attuale. Un’Europa che oggi non sembra avere memoria di un popolo - il popolo greco - che non ha mai avuto paura ad alzare la testa e combattere contro nemici molto più potenti senza timore, e che la storia di secoli e secoli ha sempre premiato con la vittoria.
Nello stesso tempo Tsipras non chiuderà la strada ad alternative possibili, perché vuole trovarsi pronto ad ogni evenienza. Da qui l’importanza della sua presenza a San Pietroburgo, con riferimento all’intesa preliminare fra Russia e Grecia per il passaggio del gasdotto Turkish Stream sul territorio greco. Accordo che permetterà ad Atene di usufruire di un prestito pari al 100% dell’importo del gasdotto che avrà una capacità annua di 47 miliardi di metri cubi di gas, con un accordo che pone le basi per una ulteriore cooperazione con la Russia. Sullo sfondo c’è anche il mercato cinese, che attualmente ha molto investito in Grecia, come per esempio nel porto di Pireo. Una Cina che sta guardando con attenzione agli sviluppi della crisi greca ed è pronta ad intervenire.
Non va dimenticato un altro aspetto importantissimo, che attualmente non viene menzionato: la Grecia è ricca di risorse nel settore degli idrocarburi e il governo greco, ultimamente, ha annunciato la proroga del termine per la presentazione delle offerte per la seconda esplorazione e sfruttamento degli idrocarburi in 20 aree marine della Grecia occidentale e a sud di Creta. Questo potrebbe essere il naturale sviluppo di uno scenario internazionale nuovo, che porterà nei prossimi decenni a trasformare una zona del Mediterraneo (che include Cipro, Grecia, Sicilia e i Paesi nordafricani) in un polo di estrazione petrolifera. Opzione che porterà benessere economico alle popolazioni locali e che potrà sostituire, nei prossimi decenni, il polo dei Paesi del Nord, dove attualmente lo sfruttamento degli idrocarburi è spinto ai limiti dello sfruttamento economicamente accettabile.
Siamo all’inizio di nuove ere, che cambieranno in ogni caso concetti e visioni di un futuro davvero intrigante e interessante, ma anche con moltissime incognite e nodi che dovranno essere sciolti in tempi brevi, come in un romanzo di avventura, scritto dai migliori scrittori internazionali del settore, ma con attori e situazioni reali che noi vivremo in prima persona, perché la soluzione finale toccherà tutti noi, in qualsiasi parte del mondo viviamo.
Chiudo con una digressione su un settore che da anni mi vede protagonista in Sicilia: la formazione di personale altamente specializzato nella subacquea industriale. Il Centro di formazione che abbiamo aperto in Sicilia a Palermo - il Cedifop - in questo momento non può dialogare con Grecia. A meno che il mio Paese non adeguerà la propria legislazione alla normativa internazionale del settore. Passaggio che potrebbe avvenire nei prossimi anni vista l’importanza della subacquea industriale. Questo potrebbe diventare un settore che potrebbe unire Sicilia e Grecia in un Mediterraneo nel quale la domanda di queste particolari professionalità è in crescita.
(Foto tratta da nationalgeografiph.it)
mercoledì 17 giugno 2015
By Manos Kouvakis
The new CEDIFOP course for “underwater technical operator - underwater welder” started on June 2 in Palermo. Enrolled students, besides Sicilians, come from Campania, Emilia Romagna and foreign countries like Cyprus, Greece and Tunisia.
The course can be described as an “intership” (following the OTS course of CEDIFOP) held in a company operating in the area, and it provides 18 technical dives and 2 training days in hyperbaric chamber, to fulfill the international training standards on immersion and skiing times and water activities as listed in IDSA (International Diving Schools Association) teaching parameters about Scuba and Surface activities (0-30 meters - diving from surface) and for the attainment of the 2 level “Inshore Air Diver”.
The only students allowed to to attend the program are those ones already equipped with OTS qualification, awarded by current IDSA full member schools, or students who have successfully completed a 4 days assessment at the same CEDIFOP.
It must be emphasized that all CEDIFOP courses comply with international training standards about immersion and skiing times and water activities provided by the aforementioned IDSA teaching parameters. Moreover, concerning the level of the required qualification, CEDIFOP being an IMCA member (Division for Europe and Africa Diving), we can consider the courses to be in line with IMCA (International Marine Contractors Association) guidance documents (IMCA D 015 Mobile/Portable Surface Supplied System,IMCA D 023 Diving Equipment Systems Inspection Guidance Note for Surface Orientated Diving System-Air), therefore fulfilling also the requirements from ENI SpA document dating to August 5 2013 (“Requirements HSE for suppliers of underwater work”).
Three basic types of international standards must be fulfilled at the same time in order to ensure underwater activities in construction sites -both inshore and offshore- to be professionally safely and optimally managed, namely: IDSA, IMCA, HSE (all of them being the base of CEDIFOP training for years).
We find the same provision also in the the bill n. 2751 (“Discipline of work activities diving and hyperbaric”) presented to the Chamber of Deputies by the Emilia Romagna elected congresswoman Deborah Bergamini, Vice President of the IX parliamentary committee (Transport, Post and Telecommunications) and Chairman of the standing committee on foreign policy and external relations of the European Union.
So states the bill: “We must aknowledge that labor market and territorial area operated by the industrial diver (considered as a professional figure) go beyond regional and national limits, and therefore, in order to support the mobility of persons, the training courses developed in this field have to follow the path indicated by the rules of professional and industrial training.
While the Institute for the development of workers' professional training (ISFOL) regulates the necessary skills of port area operators on the Italian territory, the adoption of a teaching plan for required training in offshore field should comply with three internationally accepted standards, namely:
1) training standards set by the International Diving Schools Association (IDSA), the only international teaching association in industrial diving area (there are several educational parameters in sport area, like PADI ,CMAS, SSI and others). Also worth noting that national training courses, such as those from the United States of America or Canada, always refer to the teaching parameters set by IDSA. This Association has drew up a worldwide series of inshore and offshore training rules, according to its own experience over the past 40 years and inferred from the different schools enrolled in the association all over the world;
2) yards operational standards (set by the International Marine Contractors Association – IMCA), as is the case for the above mentioned legislation UNI 11366 on safety and health protection in industrial diving and professional hyperbaric activities at the service of industry - operating procedures;
3) safety standards set by Health and Safety Executive (HSE) such as for example British HSE rules.
Only the correct application of these standards may ensure a greater international spendability to the Italian diver qualification, bringing the category up to the level it deserves, in consideration of the history and the skills characterizing it.”
"The same register of divers - we read on in the Bergamini bill - must be divided into several categories, depending on the training and competence of the member, as it happens in other countries providing rules for safety and for the professionalism of the field. As an italian exemple, we can refer to model proposed by ENI Spa, providing rules similar to those existing in the rest of the world.”
The only italian governement regulation dates back to 1982 and it barely applies to activities within port areas. Such a situation penalizes Italian titles on the IMCA dominated international arena, since IMCA (International Marine Contractors Association) recognizes only those countries offering an offshore diving legislation and territorial control rules (currently missing in Italy).
Italy could fill this gap in her legislation, after the adoption of the bill n. 698 (providing “rules on the recognition and training standards in the field of industrial diving activities”) currently debated in front of the Sicilian Parliament.
This bill makes provision for offshore areas - Article 2.4, b appling also to “.. no-territorial maritime waters (i.e. offshore), when the above activities are connected to regional interests, or to national people and companies."
Territorial control will be enforced with the registration of every activity in the Regional Labor Department register. The registration will be provided on a three level scale: Inshore Air Diver / Level 1 (up to - 30 meters), Offshore Air Diver / level 2 (from - 30 to - 50 meters) and Offshore Diver Sat / level 3 (activities beyond - 50 meters).
Registration will be granted to all those having faced special training programs.
As specified by article 5.3 and article 6.2, these training programs "... must comply with the internationally recognized IDSA (International Diving Schools Association) standards). In so far as they concern those subjects operating in the activities provided for at artcle 2.3, the training programs must comply with the standards set by the UNI 11366 (“Standards for safety and health protection in professional and industrial diving and hyperbaric activities” and the checks to be carried out to comply with obligations and general HSE (Health Safety and Environment) requirements, as settled in the IMCA guide lines .
In this way, the Sicilian “pass” granted to the registerd activities, will then be directly spendable on the international market of offshore installations, promoting Sicily to Italian and Mediterranean landmark in this strategic and important sector of industrial diving activities.
The above quoted bill will be signed soon into law by the Parliament of Sicily (note that Sicily is an autonomous region ruled by its owna special act and having its own parliament called “Sicilian Regional Assembly”), and it will also provide a regulation model for all those countries currently uncovered by the IMCA D05/15 Document (which covers only those countries already having a legislation such as the one Italy is going to bild up, thanks to Sicily).
Currently, these countries are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and in Europe: Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway, France and UK with its own British HSE certification standard, quite similar to the one proposed for Italy in the impending Sicilian bill.
Pubblicato da cedifop a 6/17/2015 09:10:00 PM
domenica 7 giugno 2015
by Manos Kouvakis – CEDIFOP Director
ITALY: Proposed Legislation 698 ‘Regulation for the Recognition of Profession and Discipline of Diver Training Standards to work as a Commercial Diver’ An Italian role model concerning Commercial Diver Training, which is exportable into other European countries
Rules and Regulations are always set within the historical context operating at the time they were developed. Thus, at the time when IMCA set out its process for the recognition of diver training qualifications, standards were variable, and there was no ‘international’ group attempting to fulfil this function. The best way to ensure quality and safety was clearly through the recognition of ‘national’ certification, assuring that individual countries both set standards and took the responsibility for ensuring that schools met them. Although there have been variations in both quality and monitoring, in general this method of recognition has worked reasonably well and over the years both safety and training standards have steadily improved. However, over the last few years, not only have new nations become involved in diver training but the market has become more ‘international’ with divers moving across the world for work more than ever before; in turn, the variation between national needs and standards has become more difficult to monitor and what is acceptable in one part of the globe has not been so in another.
With this in mind, the International Diving Schools Association (IDSA) has developed international Standards for the recognition of diver training. There are four qualifications – SCUBA, Inshore Surface Supply, Offshore Surface Supply and Closed Bell, to be accepted to teach these qualifications schools must successfully complete an audit of their Staff, Equipment, Administration and all other relevant facilities required for the chosen qualification. In a number of countries IDSA standards have then become accepted as the appropriate level for National Certification. This, however, has led to an anomaly since, whilst IMCA may well recognise a National Certificate which is identical to the relevant IDSA level, there is still no mechanism by which IMCA can recognise directly IDSA certification, though the two authorities continue to explore options. In the absence of agreement, CEDIFOP offers the following as a possible solution to the impasse.
International Diving standards for the operation of Offshore diving can be sub-divided into three areas which, whilst distinct, are also complementary to each other. They are: 1. Training: This occurs at various levels from Sport Diving (for example PADI, CMAS etc) to Professional Commercial Diving (such as that offered by IDSA schools). It is interesting that although there are other professional qualifications (such as those from the USA, Canada, UK etc) these are National certificates which can often be used in other countries; only IDSA offers an International certification. 2. Diving Work: The second area relates to Standards and Procedures relevant to the working situations (IMCA) and also Regulations – for example the UNI 11366 ‘Safety and Health in commercial diving and hyperbaric activities 3. Safety Standards: The third area is Safety Standards. These control both the above and are set out by relevant national governments such as, for example, the HSE regulations in the UK For offshore diving activities to be carried out to an acceptably high level all three of the above standards must co-exist. IDSA Standards and Procedures offer four levels of training which build on each other to produce increasingly proficient divers. A similar process is set out in the ENI Spa document dated 5 August 2013 ‘HSE requirements for Diving Contractors’ In Italy, the Proposed Legislation 698 has adopted a similar approach to standards by including them in Section 3 (professional qualifications). Meanwhile, in Section 4 (obligatory training standards), it emphasises that certificates issued ‘…must agree with State and Regional regulation, subject to the Course and to passing the final exams. Moreover, certifications must be approved by the competent offices of Region. Certifications issued by different Regions, or admissible, in agreement with the Directive 2005/36/CE must be compliant with parameters of control and approvals scheduled by the approved Regulation.’
The proposed Legislation 698 gives the right weight to those contents, highlighting that ‘Certifications must be in compliance with International Diver Training standards with regard to in-water time and activities, as scheduled by IDSA for the specified level of training and, if need be, must comply with international standards provided for prevention, safety, and care of health and the environment.’ The main focus of the proposed Legislation 698 is in the clause no.2 of section 6.
It specifies that those actions‘…must be in compliance regarding training content, with international standards as recognised by IDSA; and with regard to working Operations (see clause 3, section2) must comply with that scheduled by Regulation UNI 11366 (Safety and Health in Hyperbaric and Commercial Diving Activities) Moreover, Offshore Diving Operations Must comply with the guidelines of IMCA.’ In this way, the Proposed Legislation 698 outlines the clear co-existence between the three standards: Training, Operational. And Safety, Why does this matter? In the IMCA document ‘Training and Certification’ (See http://www.imca-int.com/ media/90582/imca-fs-logo.pdf) it is stated that there are only four training courses for which IMCA offers approval / recognition. They are: Trainee Air Diving Supervisor; Trainee Bell Diving Supervisor; Assistant Life Support Technician; and Diver Medic. Each requires that a Training Establishment must first apply for approval and then successfully undergo an audit of its documentation, facilities, and course. Once IMCA has confirmed its recognition/ approval. such establishments may use the wording ‘IMCA Approved’ or ‘IMCA Recognised’ in relation to those specific courses only. NO other courses are approved or recognised by IMCA and therefore NO establishments may use the wording ‘IMCA Approved’ or ‘IMCA Recognised’ in relation to any other course. It is important to share with members that, in a document from IMCA to CEDIFOP (11 September 2013) reference was made to a series of documents that IMCA has put out in recent years, the last being D11/13 where IMCA lists all countries with their own specific regulation concerning commercial diver training for offshore work. It should therefore be noted that, at the present time, it is difficult for IMCA to recognise IDSA without a significant change in its policy. Italy could meet this condition through the approval of the Proposed Legislation 698, (Regulation for the recognition of the profession and discipline of Diver Training Standards to work as a Commercial Diver) once a register is established and held by the Sicilian Department of Work. Under this, every diver with a level ofIDSA would be able to join the register and work inshore and offshore, as provided by the Proposed Legislation 698. The inclusion of IDSA Standards in the Proposed Legislation 698 is crucial since it will permit the implementation of the Directive 2005/36/CE which allows divers who have joined this Register to work in all EU member states, on the grounds that the Member State can verify the content of training and that the training meets the standard of training in the country to which it is going to apply. This is an important step for two reasons. Firstly it recognises that divers on the Regional register have been trained to an adequate standard; secondly it can ensure that divers whose training does not reach an acceptable standard will not gain access to the register. This will avoid the situation in which we found ourselves last year when we were forced to accept certificates from some EU countries whose training was inadequate and could have had serious safety implications.
The political structure of Italy makes it a special case with regard to IMCA recognition – there is no such thing as national standards since responsibility is delegated to the Regions, ratified in Constitutional Law as set out in N2 dated 26 February 1948 …Conversion in Constitutional Law of the Sicilian Region’s statute Authorised with the Legislative Decree n.455 dated May15 1946’ For this reason, in Italy, a Region’s Legislation carries the same force as a National Recognition which also extends to EU regulation.
In the case of IMCA therefore, recognition by Sicily carries the same status as if it came directly from the Italian Government; since Sicily’s standards are those of IDSA it seems to make a tacit admission that IDSA standards are acceptable to IMCA. So, in conclusion, if IMCA has no direct way in which it can recognise IDSA certification, an alternative approach might be for recognition to be made via Regional recognition programmes such as exist in Sicily within the overall Italian state. One might see a similar pattern developing in other countries (for example Spain, Greece, Cyprus) where there is no National legislation for diving at the present time. Equally, a case for IMCA recognition might be made through greater collaboration by Full IDSA Member schools working through the IDSA Board, where the IDSA Standards taught in those schools is effectively already the National Standard
Pubblicato da cedifop a 6/07/2015 07:40:00 AM
venerdì 5 giugno 2015
CEDIFOP - Molo Sammuzzo, Porto di Palermo: LIMITATIONS IN THE USE OF SCUBA EQUIPMENT IN OFFSHORE OPERATIONS AND THE ITALIAN SITUATION
CEDIFOP - Molo Sammuzzo, Porto di Palermo: LIMITATIONS IN THE USE OF SCUBA EQUIPMENT IN OFFSHORE OPERATIONS AND THE ITALIAN SITUATION
Pubblicato da cedifop a 6/05/2015 07:03:00 AM
by Manos Kouvakis – CEDIFOP Director
A Limited gas supply: The time that diver can spend in the water is limited by the by the amount of gas he can carry. This is a problem for divers working underwater as their gas consumption is high In many places of work there are obstacles underwater, which can catch diver. In these cases, SCUBA can represent a serious problem, whereas a diver using Surface Supply would not have a problem as he would have time either to solve it or wait for the Stand By diver, especially when in these emergency circumstances the divers gas consumption would increase. Surface supplied divers carry a bail out tank and should the supply of air from the surface stop the diver has enough gas in his bail out to reach the surface. Whereas it has been proved statistically that almost all SCUBA reserve air supply systems have e record of failure in case of emergency.
Communication with the surface: Divers in surface supply routinely have voice communication with the Supervisor on the surface, and increasingly, in addition, a video link. In the past SCUBA divers often had no communication with the surface, and again increasingly either a communication wire is attached to or combined with the lifeline or through water communications are used – bearing in mind their limitations of the latter – providing the safety of constant communication with the surface The advantages of voice communication are:
• The Supervisor can talk to divers and control the work task to the best advantage.
• The Supervisor can monitor the divers breathing, and so give them immediate assistance in the case of an emergency.
• Divers can communicate with the surface in any kind of problem or difficulty.
Safety of breathing apparatus: There are many variations of SCUBA. Some – particularly using a half mask in work situations - can cause serious problems in an emergency, for example, if a diver loses his regulator. The use of “full face mask” or helmet, with an integrated regulator, can prevent this problem.
Decompression: It is normal for the Supervisor to have responsibility for the decompression profile of a working diver. This is difficult during SCUBA operations as he has no direct knowledge of the divers depth. Computers are often used by recreational divers but in working situations the Supervisor has not access to them, and so thay do not relieve him of his responsibility. It is far safer to use Surface Supplied Equipment which provides the Supervisor with a direct readout of the diver’s depth, and allows him to take direct control of the decompression procedure.
Mobility: It is a common thought that Divers in SCUBA are more “free” that in Surface Supply. This could be true, but the risks are not acceptable, especially in open water during commercial diving operation. Moreover, in the case of an accident, the recovery operation of the Div er could be seriously compromised adverse currents. As an example, a fatal accident occurred in Livorno on the 24 February 2012, when a SCUBA Diver was carrying out the repair of a mooring in at a depth of 18 metres, when he was dragged to 50 metres depth and lost consciousness. Accidents like that often occurs because of inadequate training, when divers work underwater using recreational techniques. It is really important to underline that ENI Spa, in a letter “HSE/SIC records office 16 dated 21 May 2008”, is in force in Italy, with the title “HSE requirements for subcontractors of diving work”, on page 9 it states “Self contained breathing apparatus (SCUBA) has many limits and intrinsic difficulties (the most efficient and safe method to work underwater is with surface supply diving equipment). Therefore, SCUBA equipment should never be used for commercial purposes connected with construction, repairing and maintenance”. Since 2010 Italian Offshore operations, have been run under the UNI Regulation 1136 and directives of IMCA and ENI. Many fatal accidents have occurred because of inadequate, and the Member of Sicilian Parliament, Mr A. Di Biagio, emphasised this point in the Chamber of Deputies, at a Board meeting on 28 April 2011. During his speech, he pointed out the absence of an adequate regulation, concerning with the last accident, he said: “I assume every responsibility by affirming certain knowledge that the promulgation and application of those rules, should have save the life to that young man”. Since 1977, there have been 10 tries to define a regulation, during different legislatures (8 law proposal and 2 Unified Scripture in 2005 and 2009), but it has never worked. For the above mentioned reasons, in these last years, many Port Authority tried to “manage” this problem, issuing local decrees, worried for the safety of Divers who working without adequate competence.
SCUBA, however, remains the best alternative for recreational diving in pairs, where the main goal is relaxation and fun and not work, which is restricted to qualified commercial divers, According to ISTAT (the nomenclature and classification of the Professional units In Italy) the qualification “diver”, is listed under metalworkers’ because it is in the category: Craftsmen, skilled workers and farmers, subcategory: Craftsmen and skilled metal workers and assimilated,” under the heading “Divers and working divers” (there is no item for Sports Divers, as is sometimes suggested, wrongly, only for Water Sports). This classification is in full accordance with the European version of the International Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88Com) where divers are always in the category “Metal, machinery and related trades workers - Metal moulders, welders, sheet-metal workers, structural-metal preparers” under the heading of “Underwater workers”.
Pubblicato da cedifop a 6/05/2015 06:47:00 AM